Rudolph Hess

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Rudolph Hess

Rudolf Walter Richard Heß [farawaypress.eu a{text-decoration:none}hɛs] war ein deutscher Politiker. Heß war ab Reichsminister ohne. Rudolf Heß ist nicht nur wegen seiner Nähe zu Hitler historisch bemerkenswert. Vielmehr bietet seine Biographie auch die Gelegenheit, eine diachrone. Rudolf Walter Richard Heß war ein deutscher Politiker. Heß war ab Reichsminister ohne Geschäftsbereich und ab Mitglied des Ministerrates für die Reichsverteidigung.

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Rudolf Walter Richard Heß war ein deutscher Politiker. Heß war ab Reichsminister ohne Geschäftsbereich und ab Mitglied des Ministerrates für die Reichsverteidigung. Rudolf Walter Richard Heß [hɛs] (* April in Alexandria, Ägypten; † August in Berlin-Wilhelmstadt) war ein deutscher Politiker (NSDAP). NS-Politiker. April: Rudolf Heß wird als Sohn eines deutschen Kaufmanns und dessen Frau in Alexandria (Ägypten). Rudolf Walter Richard Heß [farawaypress.eu a{text-decoration:none}hɛs] war ein deutscher Politiker. Heß war ab Reichsminister ohne. ; Peter Longerich, Hitlers Stellvertreter. Führung der Partei und Kontrolle des Staatsapparates durch den Stab Heß und die Partei-Kanzlei Bormann, München​. Rudolf Heß ist nicht nur wegen seiner Nähe zu Hitler historisch bemerkenswert. Vielmehr bietet seine Biographie auch die Gelegenheit, eine diachrone. Category:Rudolf Hess. Language · Watch · Edit. Rudolf Hess (es); Rudolf Heß (co​); Rudolf Hess (is); Rudolf Hess (ms); Рудолф Хес (bg);.

Rudolph Hess

Der „Stellvertreter des Führers“ Rudolf Heß nahm sich im Gefängnis das Leben. Er war der letzte inhaftierte Hauptkriegsverbrecher, der in den Nürnberger. Category:Rudolf Hess. Language · Watch · Edit. Rudolf Hess (es); Rudolf Heß (co​); Rudolf Hess (is); Rudolf Hess (ms); Рудолф Хес (bg);. ; Peter Longerich, Hitlers Stellvertreter. Führung der Partei und Kontrolle des Staatsapparates durch den Stab Heß und die Partei-Kanzlei Bormann, München​. November auf WebCite Zugriff am Rudolf Hess and Weil er schon früh wusste, dass er für den Kaufmannsberuf nicht gut geeignet war, nutzte er den Ausbruch des Ersten Weltkriegsum sich über die Wünsche des Vaters hinwegzusetzen. Nuremberg trials M original. Seine Parteifunktionen übernimmt Bormann. Actie voor vrijlating Dei Mudder Sei Gesicht Stream Rudolf Hess. Pages in Rtl Formel 1 Rennen "Rudolf Hess" This category München Mord Darsteller only the following page. August — Der Stellvertreter trat ab. Zum Ersten Vorsitzenden wurde Max Sachsenheimer gewählt. Zum Ersten Vorsitzenden wurde Max Sachsenheimer gewählt. The National Archives, News, Geschichte der SA. London: Granada. Beck, MünchenS. Talking to Rudolf Hess. Bald steckbrieflich gesucht, stellte er sich Ein Neuer Tag April in München der Justiz. Der „Stellvertreter des Führers“ Rudolf Heß nahm sich im Gefängnis das Leben. Er war der letzte inhaftierte Hauptkriegsverbrecher, der in den Nürnberger. Rudolf Heß, der letzte noch lebende Mann aus dem engsten Kreis um Adolf Hitler, starb am Nachmittag des August an den Folgen. rudolf heß kinder.

Rudolph Hess - Rudolf Heß

Seine Parteifunktionen übernimmt Bormann. November auf WebCite Zugriff am Zum Ersten Vorsitzenden wurde Max Sachsenheimer gewählt. Fritz Hess. Rudolph Hess

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Rudolf Hess exhumed to deter neo-Nazi pilgrims Er habe in der zweiten Hälfte seiner jährigen Sat 1 Moderatorin einen tiefgreifenden Wandel vollzogen und Caylee Anthony Ende nichts mehr Horsemen einem Nationalsozialisten Adam Sucht Eva Promis Im Paradies Antisemiten an sich gehabt. Er besuchte nur kurzzeitig die Deutsche Schule und wurde dann zusammen mit seinem Bruder Alfred vom deutschen Hauslehrer Rudolf Haffner unterrichtet. Gilbert am From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Rudolph Hess freuen uns über ein Like. Hohenheim-Verlag, StuttgartS. Unter den Häftlingen gingen wie zuvor in der Führungsriege der Nationalsozialisten die Rivalitäten weiter, so dass sich kleine Gruppen bildeten. Da man darüber nicht offen diskutieren konnte, ohne Gefahr zu Margot Robbie Focus, wegen Defätismus denunziert zu werden, machten Legion Deutsch Menschen ihrem Unmut mit Flüsterwitzen Luft. Rudolph Hess Saur, MünchenS. Boston; Cambridge: Houghton Mifflin. New York: Macmillan. Sereny, Gitta []. Hess's flight, but not his destination or Dylan Dog, was first announced by Munich Radio in Germany on the evening of 12 May. Im Juni erklärte er zum Beispiel:. Rudolph Hess

On 31 August , Hess met with Karl Haushofer. Haushofer told Hess that he believed that King George VI was opposed to Churchill and would dismiss him and send him to Canada at the first opportunity.

Haushofer spoke of his belief that it was possible to make contact with the king via either General Ian Hamilton or the Duke of Hamilton. Hess chose Hamilton in the mistaken belief that he was one of the leaders of a party opposed to war with Germany, and because Hamilton was a friend of Haushofer.

On Hess's instructions, Haushofer wrote to Hamilton in September , but the letter was intercepted by MI5 and Hamilton did not see it until March A letter Hess wrote to his wife dated 4 November shows that in spite of not receiving a reply from Hamilton, he intended to proceed with his plan.

He began training on the Messerschmitt Bf , a two-seater twin-engine aircraft, in October under instructor Wilhelm Stör , the chief test pilot at Messerschmitt.

He asked for a radio compass, modifications to the oxygen delivery system, and large long-range fuel tanks to be installed on this plane, and these requests were granted by March After a final check of the weather reports for Germany and the North Sea , Hess took off at on 10 May from the airfield at Augsburg-Haunstetten in his specially prepared aircraft.

Initially setting a course towards Bonn , Hess used landmarks on the ground to orient himself and make minor course corrections.

When he reached the coast near the Frisian Islands , he turned and flew in an easterly direction for twenty minutes to stay out of range of British radar.

At he changed his heading to degrees, intending to approach the coast of North East England near the town of Bamburgh , Northumberland.

As it was not yet sunset when he initially approached the coast, Hess backtracked, zigzagging back and forth for 40 minutes until it grew dark.

Around this time his auxiliary fuel tanks were exhausted, so he released them into the sea. Soon he had been detected by several other stations, and the aircraft was designated as "Raid 42".

Two Spitfires of No. Tracked by additional ROC posts, Hess continued his flight into Scotland at high speed and low altitude, but was unable to spot his destination, Dungavel House , so he headed for the west coast to orient himself and then turned back inland.

At a Boulton Paul Defiant sent from No. He injured his foot, either while exiting the aircraft or when he hit the ground.

Before his departure from Germany, Hess had given his adjutant, Karlheinz Pintsch , a letter addressed to Hitler that detailed his intentions to open peace negotiations with the British.

Hitler worried that his allies, Italy and Japan, would perceive Hess's act as an attempt by Hitler to secretly open peace negotiations with the British.

Hitler contacted Mussolini specifically to reassure him otherwise. Subsequent German newspaper reports described Hess as "deluded, deranged", indicating that his mental health had been affected by injuries sustained during World War I.

Some members of the government, including Göring and Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels , believed this only made matters worse, because if Hess truly were mentally ill, he should not have been holding an important government position.

Hitler stripped Hess of all of his party and state offices, and secretly ordered him shot on sight if he ever returned to Germany. The campaign was part of a propaganda effort by Goebbels and others to denigrate Hess and to make scapegoats of occult practitioners.

American journalist Hubert Renfro Knickerbocker , who had met both Hitler and Hess, speculated that Hitler had sent Hess to deliver a message informing Winston Churchill of the forthcoming invasion of the Soviet Union, and offering a negotiated peace or even an anti-Bolshevik partnership.

Stalin persisted in this belief as late as , when he mentioned the matter to Churchill, who insisted that they had no advance knowledge of the flight.

After the war, Albert Speer discussed the rationale for the flight with Hess, who told him that "the idea had been inspired in him in a dream by supernatural forces.

We will guarantee England her empire; in return she will give us a free hand in Europe. Even though I did not get permission from the Führer to fly I knew that what I had to say would have had his approval.

Hitler had great respect for the English people Hess landed at Floors Farm, by Waterfoot , south of Glasgow, where he was discovered still struggling with his parachute by local ploughman David McLean.

McLean helped Hess to his nearby cottage and contacted the local Home Guard unit, who escorted the captive to their headquarters in Busby, East Renfrewshire.

He was next taken to the police station at Giffnock , arriving after midnight; he was searched and his possessions confiscated.

Hess repeatedly requested to meet with the Duke of Hamilton during questioning undertaken with the aid of an interpreter by Major Graham Donald, the area commandant of Royal Observer Corps.

After the interview Hess was taken under guard to Maryhill Barracks in Glasgow , where his injuries were treated. By this time some of his captors suspected Hess's true identity, though he continued to insist his name was Horn.

Hamilton had been on duty as wing commander at RAF Turnhouse near Edinburgh when Hess had arrived, and his station had been one of those that had tracked the progress of the flight.

He arrived at Maryhill Barracks the next morning, and after examining Hess's effects, he met alone with the prisoner. Hess immediately admitted his true identity and outlined the reason for his flight.

Hamilton told Hess that he hoped to continue the conversation with the aid of an interpreter; Hess could speak English well, but was having trouble understanding Hamilton.

After the meeting, Hamilton examined the remains of the Messerschmitt in the company of an intelligence officer, then returned to Turnhouse, where he made arrangements through the Foreign Office to meet Churchill, who was at Ditchley for the weekend.

They had some preliminary talks that night, and Hamilton accompanied Churchill back to London the next day, where they both met with members of the War Cabinet.

Churchill sent Hamilton with foreign affairs expert Ivone Kirkpatrick , who had met Hess previously, to positively identify the prisoner, who had been moved to Buchanan Castle overnight.

Kirkpatrick held two more meetings with Hess over the course of the next few days, while Hamilton returned to his duties. In addition to being disappointed at the apparent failure of his mission, Hess began claiming that his medical treatment was inadequate and that there was a plot afoot to poison him.

Hess's flight, but not his destination or fate, was first announced by Munich Radio in Germany on the evening of 12 May.

On 13 May Hitler sent Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop to give the news in person to Mussolini, and the British press was permitted to release full information about events that same day.

On 14 May Ilse Hess finally learned that her husband had survived the trip when news of his fate was broadcast on German radio. Two sections of the fuselage of the aircraft were initially hidden by David McLean and later retrieved.

One part was sold to the former assistant secretary of the Battle of Britain Association, who gave it to a war museum in the US; this The aeroplane had been armed with four machine guns in the nose, but carried no ammunition.

From Buchanan Castle, Hess was transferred briefly to the Tower of London and then to Mytchett Place in Surrey , a fortified mansion, designated "Camp Z", where he stayed for the next 13 months.

Three intelligence officers were stationed onsite and soldiers were placed on guard. By early June, Hess was allowed to write to his family.

He also prepared a letter to the Duke of Hamilton, but it was never delivered, and his repeated requests for further meetings were turned down.

Dicks and Dr John Rawlings Rees , psychiatrists who treated Hess during this period, noted that while he was not insane, he was mentally unstable, with tendencies toward hypochondria and paranoia.

Lord Simon noted that the prisoner's mental state was not good; Hess claimed he was being poisoned and was being prevented from sleeping. While in Scotland, Hess claimed to have discovered a "secret force" controlling the minds of Churchill and other British leaders, filling them with an irrational hatred of Germany.

Hess claimed the force acted on Hitler's mind as well, causing him to make poor military decisions. He said that Jews had psychic powers that allowed them to control the minds of others, including Himmler, and that the Holocaust was part of a Jewish plot to defame Germany.

In the early morning hours of 16 June , Hess rushed his guards and attempted suicide by jumping over the railing of the staircase at Mytchett Place.

He fell onto the stone floor below, fracturing the femur of his left leg. The injury required that the leg be kept in traction for 12 weeks, with a further six weeks bed rest before he was permitted to walk with crutches.

Captain Munro Johnson of the Royal Army Medical Corps , who assessed Hess, noted that another suicide attempt was likely to occur in the near future.

Hess began around this time to complain of amnesia. This symptom and some of his increasingly erratic behaviour may have in part been a ruse, because if he were declared mentally ill, he could be repatriated under the terms of the Geneva Conventions.

Hess was moved to Maindiff Court Hospital on 26 June , where he remained for the next three years. The facility was chosen for its added security and the need for fewer guards.

Hess was allowed walks on the grounds and car trips into the surrounding countryside. He had access to newspapers and other reading materials; he wrote letters and journals.

His mental health remained under the care of Dr Rees. Hess continued to complain on and off of memory loss and made a second suicide attempt on 4 February , when he stabbed himself with a bread knife.

The wound was not serious, requiring two stitches. Despondent that Germany was losing the war, he took no food for the next week, only resuming eating when he was threatened with being force-fed.

Germany surrendered unconditionally on 8 May Hess, facing charges as a war criminal, was ordered to appear before the International Military Tribunal and was transported to Nuremberg on 10 October The Allies of World War II held a series of military tribunals and trials, beginning with a trial of the major war criminals from November to October Hess was tried with this first group of 23 defendants, all of whom were charged with four counts—conspiracy to commit crimes, crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity , in violation of international laws governing warfare.

On his arrival in Nuremberg, Hess was reluctant to give up some of his possessions, including samples of food he said had been poisoned by the British; he proposed to use these for his defence during the trial.

The commandant of the facility, Colonel Burton C. Andrus of the United States Army, advised him that he would be allowed no special treatment; the samples were sealed and confiscated.

As one defendant, Robert Ley , had managed to hang himself in his cell on 24 October, the remaining prisoners were monitored around the clock. Almost immediately after his arrival, Hess began exhibiting amnesia, which may have been feigned in the hope of avoiding the death sentence.

The chief psychiatrist at Nuremberg, Douglas Kelley of the US Military, gave the opinion that the defendant suffered from "a true psychoneurosis, primarily of the hysterical type, engrafted on a basic paranoid and schizoid personality, with amnesia, partly genuine and partly feigned", but found him fit to stand trial.

The prosecution's case against Hess was presented by Mervyn Griffith-Jones beginning on 7 February By quoting from Hess's speeches, he attempted to demonstrate that Hess had been aware of and agreed with Hitler's plans to conduct a war of aggression in violation of international law.

He declared that as Hess had signed important governmental decrees, including the decree requiring mandatory military service, the Nuremberg racial laws, and a decree incorporating the conquered Polish territories into the Reich, he must share responsibility for the acts of the regime.

He pointed out that the timing of Hess's trip to Scotland, only six weeks before the German invasion of the Soviet Union, could only be viewed as an attempt by Hess to keep the British out of the war.

Hess resumed showing symptoms of amnesia at the end of February, partway through the prosecution's case. He noted that while Hess accepted responsibility for the many decrees he had signed, he said these matters were part of the internal workings of a sovereign state and thus outside the purview of a war crimes trial.

When Griffith-Jones presented questions about the organisation's spying in several countries, Bohle testified that any warlike activities such as espionage had been done without his permission or knowledge.

Seidl presented a summation of the defence's case on 25 July, in which he attempted to refute the charge of conspiracy by pointing out that Hitler alone had made all the important decisions.

He noted that Hess could not be held responsible for any events that took place after he left Germany in May Meanwhile, Hess mentally detached himself from what was happening, declining visits from his family and refusing to read the newspapers.

The court deliberated for nearly two months before passing judgement on 30 September, with the defendants being individually sentenced on 1 October.

Hess was found guilty on two counts: crimes against peace planning and preparing a war of aggression , and conspiracy with other German leaders to commit crimes.

He was found not guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity. He was given a life sentence, one of seven Nazis to receive prison sentences at the trial.

These seven were transported by aircraft to the Allied military prison at Spandau in Berlin on 18 July Spandau was placed under the control of the Allied Control Council , the governing body in charge of the military occupation of Germany, which consisted of representatives from Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union.

Each country supplied prison guards for a month at a time on a rotating basis. After the inmates were given medical examinations—Hess refused his body search, and had to be held down [] —they were provided with prison garb and assigned the numbers by which they were addressed throughout their stay.

Hess was Number 7. The prison had a small library and inmates were allowed to file special requests for additional reading material. Writing materials were limited; each inmate was allowed four pieces of paper per month for letters.

They were not allowed to speak to one another without permission and were expected to work in the facility, helping with cleaning and gardening chores.

Some of the rules became more relaxed as time went on. Visitors were allowed to come for half an hour per month, but Hess forbade his family to visit until December , when he was a patient at the British Military Hospital in West Berlin for a perforated ulcer.

By this time, Wolf Rüdiger Hess was 32 years old and Ilse 69; they had not seen Hess since his departure from Germany in After this illness, he allowed his family to visit regularly.

His daughter-in-law Andrea, who often brought photos and films of his grandchildren, became a particularly welcome visitor. He cried out in the night, claiming he had stomach pains.

He continued to suspect that his food was being poisoned and complained of amnesia. Other than his stays in hospital, Hess spent the rest of his life in Spandau Prison.

A lift was installed so he could easily reach the garden, and he was provided with a medical orderly from onward.

Hess's lawyer Alfred Seidl launched numerous appeals for his release, beginning as early as These were denied, mainly because the Soviets repeatedly vetoed the proposal.

Spandau was located in West Berlin, and its existence gave the Soviets a foothold in that sector of the city.

Additionally, Soviet officials believed Hess must have known in that an attack on their country was imminent.

By , , people had signed the petition. In September , medical tests showed that Hess was suffering from potentially fatal prostate cancer.

Hess's appeal to neo-Nazi groups in West Germany further increased the Soviet unwillingness to consider his release. Hess continued to be an unapologetic Nazi and anti-Semite; this was usually ignored by those championing his release, who portrayed him as a harmless old man.

On 25 June , a Soviet guard caught Charles Gabel, the chaplain at Spandau, attempting to smuggle out a statement by Hess, causing Gabel to be fired.

Hess had originally written the document as his opening address at the Nuremberg trial in , which he had been unable to deliver in full after the judges cut him short.

Hess tried to mail a copy of the statement to Sir Oswald Mosley in October , but the letter was intercepted by his American guards.

He said in the statement that he had decided to make his flight to Scotland without informing Hitler, with the aim of informing Britain of the Soviet danger to "European civilization" and the entire world.

He believed his warning would cause Britain to end its war with Germany and join in the fight against the Soviet Union. Hess died on 17 August , aged 93, in a summer house that had been set up in the prison garden as a reading room.

He took an extension cord from one of the lamps, strung it over a window latch, and hanged himself. A short note to his family was found in his pocket, thanking them for all that they had done.

The Four Powers released a statement on 17 September ruling the death a suicide. He was initially buried at a secret location to avoid media attention or demonstrations by Nazi sympathisers, but his body was re-interred in a family plot at Wunsiedel on 17 March ; his wife was buried beside him in Hess's lawyer Alfred Seidl felt that he was too old and frail to have managed to kill himself.

Wolf Rüdiger Hess repeatedly claimed that his father had been murdered by the British Secret Intelligence Service to prevent him from revealing information about British misconduct during the war.

Abdallah Melaouhi served as Hess's medical orderly from to ; he was dismissed from his position at his local district parliament's Immigration and Integration Advisory Council after he wrote a self-published book on a similar theme.

According to an investigation by the British government in , the available evidence did not back up the claim that Hess was murdered, and Solicitor General Sir Nicholas Lyell saw no grounds for further investigation.

Historian Peter Padfield wrote that the suicide note found on the body appeared to have been written when Hess was hospitalised in Wunsiedel became a destination for pilgrimages and neo-Nazi demonstrations every August on the date of Hess's death.

To put a stop to neo-Nazi pilgrimages, the parish council decided not to allow an extension on the grave site's lease when it expired in The remains were cremated and the ashes scattered at sea by family members.

The gravestone, which bore the epitaph "Ich hab's gewagt" "I have dared" , was destroyed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 30 October This article is about the Deputy Führer to Adolf Hitler.

For the commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp, see Rudolf Höss. For the Californian artist, see Rudolf Hess artist.

Ilse Pröhl. Racial ideology. Final Solution. Nazism outside of Germany. Related topics. Further information: Nuremberg Trials.

Bird, Eugene The Loneliest Man in the World. Chesler, Caren 1 October Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institution.

Retrieved 4 September Childers, Thomas Boston; Cambridge: Houghton Mifflin. Dowling, Siobhan 21 July The Guardian. Retrieved 26 February Evans, Richard J.

The Coming of the Third Reich. Penguin Group. The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin Group. The Third Reich at War. Goda, Norman Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gunther, John Inside Europe. Handwerk, Brian 10 May Retrieved 28 August Hess, Wolf Rüdiger []. My Father Rudolf Hess.

London: W. Herwig, Holger Greenwald, John; Freeman, Clive 31 August Archived from the original on 6 December Retrieved 27 February Jacobsen, Hans-Adolf Chrisitan Leitz ed.

The Structure of Nazi Foreign Policy, — London: Blackwell. The Telegraph. Retrieved 28 January Is Tomorrow Hitler's?

Lang, Jochen von The Secretary. New York: Random House. Hess: A Biography. London: Granada. Numerose furono in seguito le richieste di grazia , soprattutto dopo che Hess era rimasto l'unico detenuto del carcere dopo la liberazione degli altri nazisti condannati a pene detentive, rimaste sempre inascoltate per l'intransigenza dell' URSS e il mancato appoggio del Regno Unito.

La versione ufficiale, che parla di suicidio, fu messa in dubbio non solo dai familiari. Hess fu sepolto a Wunsiedel , in Baviera [10].

Gli eredi di Hess decisero di far cremare i resti e di disperderne le ceneri in mare. Altri progetti. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

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Alessandria d'Egitto , 26 aprile Berlino Ovest , 17 agosto 93 anni. Cimitero di Wunsiedel Impero tedesco Germania nazista. Deutsches Heer Luftstreitkräfte Schutzstaffel.

Leutnant der Reserve SS-Obergruppenführer.

We will guarantee England her empire; in return she will give us a free hand in Europe. Even though I did not get permission from the Führer to fly I knew that what I had to say would have had his approval.

Hitler had great respect for the English people Hess landed at Floors Farm, by Waterfoot , south of Glasgow, where he was discovered still struggling with his parachute by local ploughman David McLean.

McLean helped Hess to his nearby cottage and contacted the local Home Guard unit, who escorted the captive to their headquarters in Busby, East Renfrewshire.

He was next taken to the police station at Giffnock , arriving after midnight; he was searched and his possessions confiscated.

Hess repeatedly requested to meet with the Duke of Hamilton during questioning undertaken with the aid of an interpreter by Major Graham Donald, the area commandant of Royal Observer Corps.

After the interview Hess was taken under guard to Maryhill Barracks in Glasgow , where his injuries were treated.

By this time some of his captors suspected Hess's true identity, though he continued to insist his name was Horn. Hamilton had been on duty as wing commander at RAF Turnhouse near Edinburgh when Hess had arrived, and his station had been one of those that had tracked the progress of the flight.

He arrived at Maryhill Barracks the next morning, and after examining Hess's effects, he met alone with the prisoner.

Hess immediately admitted his true identity and outlined the reason for his flight. Hamilton told Hess that he hoped to continue the conversation with the aid of an interpreter; Hess could speak English well, but was having trouble understanding Hamilton.

After the meeting, Hamilton examined the remains of the Messerschmitt in the company of an intelligence officer, then returned to Turnhouse, where he made arrangements through the Foreign Office to meet Churchill, who was at Ditchley for the weekend.

They had some preliminary talks that night, and Hamilton accompanied Churchill back to London the next day, where they both met with members of the War Cabinet.

Churchill sent Hamilton with foreign affairs expert Ivone Kirkpatrick , who had met Hess previously, to positively identify the prisoner, who had been moved to Buchanan Castle overnight.

Kirkpatrick held two more meetings with Hess over the course of the next few days, while Hamilton returned to his duties.

In addition to being disappointed at the apparent failure of his mission, Hess began claiming that his medical treatment was inadequate and that there was a plot afoot to poison him.

Hess's flight, but not his destination or fate, was first announced by Munich Radio in Germany on the evening of 12 May.

On 13 May Hitler sent Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop to give the news in person to Mussolini, and the British press was permitted to release full information about events that same day.

On 14 May Ilse Hess finally learned that her husband had survived the trip when news of his fate was broadcast on German radio. Two sections of the fuselage of the aircraft were initially hidden by David McLean and later retrieved.

One part was sold to the former assistant secretary of the Battle of Britain Association, who gave it to a war museum in the US; this The aeroplane had been armed with four machine guns in the nose, but carried no ammunition.

From Buchanan Castle, Hess was transferred briefly to the Tower of London and then to Mytchett Place in Surrey , a fortified mansion, designated "Camp Z", where he stayed for the next 13 months.

Three intelligence officers were stationed onsite and soldiers were placed on guard. By early June, Hess was allowed to write to his family.

He also prepared a letter to the Duke of Hamilton, but it was never delivered, and his repeated requests for further meetings were turned down.

Dicks and Dr John Rawlings Rees , psychiatrists who treated Hess during this period, noted that while he was not insane, he was mentally unstable, with tendencies toward hypochondria and paranoia.

Lord Simon noted that the prisoner's mental state was not good; Hess claimed he was being poisoned and was being prevented from sleeping.

While in Scotland, Hess claimed to have discovered a "secret force" controlling the minds of Churchill and other British leaders, filling them with an irrational hatred of Germany.

Hess claimed the force acted on Hitler's mind as well, causing him to make poor military decisions. He said that Jews had psychic powers that allowed them to control the minds of others, including Himmler, and that the Holocaust was part of a Jewish plot to defame Germany.

In the early morning hours of 16 June , Hess rushed his guards and attempted suicide by jumping over the railing of the staircase at Mytchett Place. He fell onto the stone floor below, fracturing the femur of his left leg.

The injury required that the leg be kept in traction for 12 weeks, with a further six weeks bed rest before he was permitted to walk with crutches.

Captain Munro Johnson of the Royal Army Medical Corps , who assessed Hess, noted that another suicide attempt was likely to occur in the near future.

Hess began around this time to complain of amnesia. This symptom and some of his increasingly erratic behaviour may have in part been a ruse, because if he were declared mentally ill, he could be repatriated under the terms of the Geneva Conventions.

Hess was moved to Maindiff Court Hospital on 26 June , where he remained for the next three years. The facility was chosen for its added security and the need for fewer guards.

Hess was allowed walks on the grounds and car trips into the surrounding countryside. He had access to newspapers and other reading materials; he wrote letters and journals.

His mental health remained under the care of Dr Rees. Hess continued to complain on and off of memory loss and made a second suicide attempt on 4 February , when he stabbed himself with a bread knife.

The wound was not serious, requiring two stitches. Despondent that Germany was losing the war, he took no food for the next week, only resuming eating when he was threatened with being force-fed.

Germany surrendered unconditionally on 8 May Hess, facing charges as a war criminal, was ordered to appear before the International Military Tribunal and was transported to Nuremberg on 10 October The Allies of World War II held a series of military tribunals and trials, beginning with a trial of the major war criminals from November to October Hess was tried with this first group of 23 defendants, all of whom were charged with four counts—conspiracy to commit crimes, crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity , in violation of international laws governing warfare.

On his arrival in Nuremberg, Hess was reluctant to give up some of his possessions, including samples of food he said had been poisoned by the British; he proposed to use these for his defence during the trial.

The commandant of the facility, Colonel Burton C. Andrus of the United States Army, advised him that he would be allowed no special treatment; the samples were sealed and confiscated.

As one defendant, Robert Ley , had managed to hang himself in his cell on 24 October, the remaining prisoners were monitored around the clock.

Almost immediately after his arrival, Hess began exhibiting amnesia, which may have been feigned in the hope of avoiding the death sentence. The chief psychiatrist at Nuremberg, Douglas Kelley of the US Military, gave the opinion that the defendant suffered from "a true psychoneurosis, primarily of the hysterical type, engrafted on a basic paranoid and schizoid personality, with amnesia, partly genuine and partly feigned", but found him fit to stand trial.

The prosecution's case against Hess was presented by Mervyn Griffith-Jones beginning on 7 February By quoting from Hess's speeches, he attempted to demonstrate that Hess had been aware of and agreed with Hitler's plans to conduct a war of aggression in violation of international law.

He declared that as Hess had signed important governmental decrees, including the decree requiring mandatory military service, the Nuremberg racial laws, and a decree incorporating the conquered Polish territories into the Reich, he must share responsibility for the acts of the regime.

He pointed out that the timing of Hess's trip to Scotland, only six weeks before the German invasion of the Soviet Union, could only be viewed as an attempt by Hess to keep the British out of the war.

Hess resumed showing symptoms of amnesia at the end of February, partway through the prosecution's case. He noted that while Hess accepted responsibility for the many decrees he had signed, he said these matters were part of the internal workings of a sovereign state and thus outside the purview of a war crimes trial.

When Griffith-Jones presented questions about the organisation's spying in several countries, Bohle testified that any warlike activities such as espionage had been done without his permission or knowledge.

Seidl presented a summation of the defence's case on 25 July, in which he attempted to refute the charge of conspiracy by pointing out that Hitler alone had made all the important decisions.

He noted that Hess could not be held responsible for any events that took place after he left Germany in May Meanwhile, Hess mentally detached himself from what was happening, declining visits from his family and refusing to read the newspapers.

The court deliberated for nearly two months before passing judgement on 30 September, with the defendants being individually sentenced on 1 October.

Hess was found guilty on two counts: crimes against peace planning and preparing a war of aggression , and conspiracy with other German leaders to commit crimes.

He was found not guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity. He was given a life sentence, one of seven Nazis to receive prison sentences at the trial.

These seven were transported by aircraft to the Allied military prison at Spandau in Berlin on 18 July Spandau was placed under the control of the Allied Control Council , the governing body in charge of the military occupation of Germany, which consisted of representatives from Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union.

Each country supplied prison guards for a month at a time on a rotating basis. After the inmates were given medical examinations—Hess refused his body search, and had to be held down [] —they were provided with prison garb and assigned the numbers by which they were addressed throughout their stay.

Hess was Number 7. The prison had a small library and inmates were allowed to file special requests for additional reading material. Writing materials were limited; each inmate was allowed four pieces of paper per month for letters.

They were not allowed to speak to one another without permission and were expected to work in the facility, helping with cleaning and gardening chores.

Some of the rules became more relaxed as time went on. Visitors were allowed to come for half an hour per month, but Hess forbade his family to visit until December , when he was a patient at the British Military Hospital in West Berlin for a perforated ulcer.

By this time, Wolf Rüdiger Hess was 32 years old and Ilse 69; they had not seen Hess since his departure from Germany in After this illness, he allowed his family to visit regularly.

His daughter-in-law Andrea, who often brought photos and films of his grandchildren, became a particularly welcome visitor.

He cried out in the night, claiming he had stomach pains. He continued to suspect that his food was being poisoned and complained of amnesia.

Other than his stays in hospital, Hess spent the rest of his life in Spandau Prison. A lift was installed so he could easily reach the garden, and he was provided with a medical orderly from onward.

Hess's lawyer Alfred Seidl launched numerous appeals for his release, beginning as early as These were denied, mainly because the Soviets repeatedly vetoed the proposal.

Spandau was located in West Berlin, and its existence gave the Soviets a foothold in that sector of the city. Additionally, Soviet officials believed Hess must have known in that an attack on their country was imminent.

By , , people had signed the petition. In September , medical tests showed that Hess was suffering from potentially fatal prostate cancer. Hess's appeal to neo-Nazi groups in West Germany further increased the Soviet unwillingness to consider his release.

Hess continued to be an unapologetic Nazi and anti-Semite; this was usually ignored by those championing his release, who portrayed him as a harmless old man.

On 25 June , a Soviet guard caught Charles Gabel, the chaplain at Spandau, attempting to smuggle out a statement by Hess, causing Gabel to be fired.

Hess had originally written the document as his opening address at the Nuremberg trial in , which he had been unable to deliver in full after the judges cut him short.

Hess tried to mail a copy of the statement to Sir Oswald Mosley in October , but the letter was intercepted by his American guards.

He said in the statement that he had decided to make his flight to Scotland without informing Hitler, with the aim of informing Britain of the Soviet danger to "European civilization" and the entire world.

He believed his warning would cause Britain to end its war with Germany and join in the fight against the Soviet Union. Hess died on 17 August , aged 93, in a summer house that had been set up in the prison garden as a reading room.

He took an extension cord from one of the lamps, strung it over a window latch, and hanged himself. A short note to his family was found in his pocket, thanking them for all that they had done.

The Four Powers released a statement on 17 September ruling the death a suicide. He was initially buried at a secret location to avoid media attention or demonstrations by Nazi sympathisers, but his body was re-interred in a family plot at Wunsiedel on 17 March ; his wife was buried beside him in Hess's lawyer Alfred Seidl felt that he was too old and frail to have managed to kill himself.

Wolf Rüdiger Hess repeatedly claimed that his father had been murdered by the British Secret Intelligence Service to prevent him from revealing information about British misconduct during the war.

Abdallah Melaouhi served as Hess's medical orderly from to ; he was dismissed from his position at his local district parliament's Immigration and Integration Advisory Council after he wrote a self-published book on a similar theme.

According to an investigation by the British government in , the available evidence did not back up the claim that Hess was murdered, and Solicitor General Sir Nicholas Lyell saw no grounds for further investigation.

Historian Peter Padfield wrote that the suicide note found on the body appeared to have been written when Hess was hospitalised in Wunsiedel became a destination for pilgrimages and neo-Nazi demonstrations every August on the date of Hess's death.

To put a stop to neo-Nazi pilgrimages, the parish council decided not to allow an extension on the grave site's lease when it expired in The remains were cremated and the ashes scattered at sea by family members.

The gravestone, which bore the epitaph "Ich hab's gewagt" "I have dared" , was destroyed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 30 October This article is about the Deputy Führer to Adolf Hitler.

For the commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp, see Rudolf Höss. For the Californian artist, see Rudolf Hess artist.

Ilse Pröhl. Racial ideology. Final Solution. Nazism outside of Germany. Related topics. Further information: Nuremberg Trials. Bird, Eugene The Loneliest Man in the World.

Chesler, Caren 1 October Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institution. Per l'esecuzione della pena fu rinchiuso nel carcere di Spandau , a Berlino Ovest.

Numerose furono in seguito le richieste di grazia , soprattutto dopo che Hess era rimasto l'unico detenuto del carcere dopo la liberazione degli altri nazisti condannati a pene detentive, rimaste sempre inascoltate per l'intransigenza dell' URSS e il mancato appoggio del Regno Unito.

La versione ufficiale, che parla di suicidio, fu messa in dubbio non solo dai familiari. Hess fu sepolto a Wunsiedel , in Baviera [10].

Gli eredi di Hess decisero di far cremare i resti e di disperderne le ceneri in mare. Altri progetti. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

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Namespace Voce Discussione. Seither finden in Wunsiedel nur noch Schweigemärsche mit geringen Teilnehmerzahlen statt. Da der Todestag im Jahr von besonderer symbolischer Bedeutung war, wurden in zahlreichen Orten Deutschlands im Vorfeld Demonstrationsverbote verhängt, die von den Veranstaltern gerichtlich angefochten wurden.

So durften hierzu in ganz Sachsen-Anhalt keine Demonstrationen durchgeführt werden. In München wurde ein Aufmarsch unter Auflagen zugelassen.

Der Landkreis Forchheim legte gegen den Beschluss des Verwaltungsgerichts Bayreuth Beschwerde vor dem Bayerischen Verwaltungsgerichtshof ein, eine Demonstration in Gräfenberg zuzulassen.

Er habe in der zweiten Hälfte seiner jährigen Haft einen tiefgreifenden Wandel vollzogen und am Ende nichts mehr von einem Nationalsozialisten oder Antisemiten an sich gehabt.

Zu anderen Personen siehe Rudolf Hess. Mai Econ, Düsseldorf, 3. Auflage , S. Econ, Düsseldorf 3. Ullstein Taschenbuch, Grondrom Verlag, Bindlach , S.

Deutschland — Siedler Verlag, Berlin , S. Beck Verlag, München , S. Harnack, München , S. In: Der Spiegel. Saur, München , S.

Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart , S. Hitler und die Anfänge des Dritten Reichs. Ullstein, Berlin , S. Geschichte der SA. Beck, München , S. In: David Culbert Hrsg.

Oldenbourg, München , Dok. Schöningh, Paderborn , S. Eine Gesamtdarstellung der nationalsozialistischen Judenverfolgung.

Piper, München , S. Droste, Düsseldorf , S. Justiz und Nationalsozialismus. Ebert, Johann B. Eine Biographie.

In: Geschichte und Gegenwart , S. Tagebücher — Aufbau, Berlin , Bd. Zitiert bei Henning Köhler : Deutschland auf dem Weg zu sich selbst. Eine Jahrhundertgeschichte.

Hohenheim-Verlag, Stuttgart , S. In: Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte , 41 , S. April Politik und Kriegführung — München , S.

Kalkül oder Dogma? Kohlhammer, Stuttgart, Berlin und Köln , S. Piper, München , Bd. Eintrag vom Mai , Rechtschreibfehler im Original.

In: Bernd Wegner Hrsg. Piper, München S. August Memento vom 5. November auf WebCite Zugriff am April ].

The National Archives, News, Juli Englandflug und Gefangenschaft. August — Der Stellvertreter trat ab. September Bantam Press, London , S.

New York, Taplinger , S. The Life of Maxwell Knight. HarperCollins, London Dokumentation, , Video bei YouTube. In: Publikative.

Rudolph Hess In: Die Presse Das Tagesgeschäft habe er vielmehr seinem machtbewussten Stabsleiter Martin Bormann Wakfu Stream Deutsch, der ihm im Amt nachfolgen sollte. Weil er schon früh wusste, dass er für den Kaufmannsberuf nicht gut geeignet war, nutzte er den Ausbruch des Ersten Weltkriegsum sich über die Wünsche des Vaters hinwegzusetzen. Rudolph Hess Maximilian University of Munich. National Socialist German Workers' Party. Juli in Marisa Burger Nude Kriegsverbrechergefängnis Spandau gebracht, das von den Alliierten speziell zur Unterbringung der Verurteilten im britischen Sektor von Berlin eingerichtet worden war. Daher lernte er auch kein Englisch. Bundesarchiv BildRudolf Hess. Eine weitere Machtausweitung brachte die Deutsche Stirb An Einem Anderen Tag vom Angeklagte im Nürnberger Prozess gegen die Hauptkriegsverbrecher.

Rudolph Hess So starb Hitlers wahnsinniger „Stellvertreter“

From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Geburtstag ein Gnadengesuch. Nuremberg Trials retouched. So etwas wäre vorab wohl nicht einmal den unkonventionellen Londoner Agenten eingefallen. In: n-tv. Commons Wikiquote.

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